Table of Contents

Table of contents of Economies of Serious and Popular Art, How They Diverged and Reunited.
The  following TOC is the same as the one in the book. 
Visit the DOI [the Digital Object Identifier]


                                        1 Introduction

1 A Period of Serious Art. An Art Ethos

2 Useful Art

3 Artworlds

4 Serious and Popular Art. Art Buildings

5 Boundaries. Social Classes

References 17

                                 2 Serious Artworld

1 Separation of Serious Art and Entertainment

1.1 Art Used to Be Entertaining, Frivolous and Contemporary

1.2 Classification, Isolation and Etiquette

1.3 Art-Classics and an Art-Heritage

1.4 Nonprofits. De-Commercialisation

2 Much Respect for Serious Art

2.1 Celebrations and Magnificent Art Buildings

2.2 Much Respect for Art and Artists

2.3 Respectful Behaviour in Art Buildings

3 Governance by Artworlds. Innovation

3.1 Changing Governance of Art Production

3.2 Gatekeeping by Artworlds

3.3 Financial Support by Governments and Donors

3.4 The Evolving Justifications of Public Support. “Quality Comes  First”

3.5 Innovation and Restricted Production in the Popular and Serious Arts


                                     3  Authentic Art and Artists   

1 In Search of an “Authentic Self”

1.1 Art Setting. Art Experience. Self-Constructed Artworks

1.2  An Ideal of Personal Authenticity. Deep Art Experiences

1.3  The Artist-in-the-Work

1.4  No Distractions. Much Self-Control

1.5  Informalisation

1.6  Identity Creation by a Choice of Artworks

2 An Obsession with Authenticity. Authorship. Singularity
and Aura

2.1  Digression. Nominal and Expressive Authenticity

2.2 Digression. Originals. Multiples and Series. Reproductions and Productions

2.3  Performances Must Be Authentic

2.4  A Cost Disease. Subsidised Authenticity

2.5  Lowering Cost and Innovation

2.6  An Experience of Singularity and Aura

2.7  Correct Attribution and Financial Value

2.8 Attractive Sole Authorship. Little Collaboration

2.9  Passive Audiences. Refraction and Co-creation

3 An Attractive Low-Income Profession That Enables Self-Expression 

3.1  Declaring to Be Artist. Between Professional and Amateur. Many Self-Taught Professional Artists

3.2  Digression. Human Capital. Measuring Problems

3.3  Decreasing Incomes. Increasing Numbers

3.4  Second Jobs. An Art-Work Preference

3.5  Explanations of the Attraction of the Arts Profession

3.6  Everybody Creative?

3.7  Experience of Failure and Distress

References                              129

                                                  4  Exclusion and Exclusivity


1.1 Underrepresentation of Underprivileged Groups Among Consumers

1.2 Underrepresentation of Underprivileged Groups and Women in Art Production

1.3  Bringing Art to the Proletariat. Dissemination of Art

1.4 Learning and Understanding Art Is a Social Affair

Forms of Exclusion. Difficult Art. Meaningful Own Art 

2.1  Price Exclusion

2.2  Digression: Pricing Policies That Serve Inclusion

2.3  Informal Exclusion in Art Buildings

2.4 Socialisation. Wrongly-Resourced and Unwanted. Differently Resourced.

2.5 Difficult Art. An Intellectual Discourse. Appropriation.

2.6  Own Meaningful Art of Social Groups

A Love of Art or a Love of Exclusivity      

3.1  Looking Down on “Others” and Their Art

3.2  Disdain for and Fear of Low-Cost Reproductions and Recordings

3.3  An Unwillingness to Lower Costs

3.4 Membership in Exclusive Circles. Investment. Speculation.

3.5 Power. Distinction. Exclusivity

References                              184

                                    5  Commerce and the Rejection of Commerce

Hostile Spheres. Covering up of Commerce

1.1 Introduction. Market, Commodity, Commercialism and Related Terms

1.2  Hostile Spheres

1.3 “Art Is Precious”. “Price Must Not Stand for Quality”

1.4  A Culture of Generosity

1.5  Exploitation of Artists

1.6  Covering Up of Commerce. Laundering of Blameworthy Activities

Autonomy and Compromise             

2.1 Introduction. The Autonomous Space of Artists and Arts Organisations

2.2  Commercial Artists of Old

2.3 Commercial Art for the Sake of Art. A Balancing Act

2.4  Artists Being Shamed for Being Commercial

2.5 The Influence of the Market and Artworld Demands on Artists

2.6  Sponsors and Donors Influence Arts organisations

2.7  Conditional Support of Governments and Donors

Entrepreneurship and Marketing

3.1  Reprehensible Cultural Entrepreneurship

3.2  Reprehensible Marketing and Self-Branding

3.3  Enrichment

3.4  Over-Enrichment?


                                             6  Art in the Twenty-First Century

1 Four Spheres of Art Practices. Entrepreneurship Education

1.1  A Consumer-Oriented Sphere

1.2  A Research Sphere

1.3 A Sphere of Hybrid Practices and Expanding Professionalism

1.4  A Bohemian Sphere and Wageless Work

1.5  Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurship Education

2 New Art

2.1  Changes in Art Buildings. Side-Line Products

2.2  More Informal Art Events

2.3  Combinations of Serious and Popular Art

Digitisation and the Platform Economy      

3.1  Digitisation. Innovation

3.2  New and Spectacular Art Products Relying on Digitisation

3.3  The Platform Economy

3.4  Marketing. Standing Out. Parasocial Relationships

3.5  Monetisation. Cost. Funding

Success and Diversity in the Twenty-First Century  

4.1  Superstar Effects. A Long Tail. High and Low Incomes

4.2  Spectacular Competitions and New Career Paths Amateur. Professional

4.3  Barriers

4.4  Winners in the Virtual and Real World

4.5  Industry Structure. More of the Same?

The End of the Period of Serious Art          

5.1 Omnivorousness. There Is No Longer a SignificantBoundary Between Popular and Serious Art

5.2 No Opposing Art Movements. Hybridisation, Blurred Boundaries and Diversity

5.3  Art or Culture? Who Is an Artist?

5.4  The End of the Period of Serious Art

Epilogue. Not All Is Well

References                              327